According to the new findings, numbers of Grauer’s gorillas have plummeted by 77% in just 20 years. The Grauer’s gorilla, a subspecies of the eastern gorilla found only in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), has declined from an estimated 17,000 individuals in 1994 to just 3,800 today.
The start of the gorilla population collapse has been traced to the Rwandan genocide in 1994, which forced hundreds of thousands of refugees to flee to the DRC and triggered a civil war in 1996. The war claimed an estimated five million lives over seven years and, beyond the human tragedy, it has also taken its toll on the DRC’s wildlife with the Grauer’s gorilla since being heavily affected by illegal hunting. Hunting of the gorillas is linked to the expansion of unregulated, artisanal mining for coltan – a metallic ore used in the manufacture of mobile phones and other electronics – and other minerals. Most artisanal mining sites are in remote areas where the miners, in the absence of an affordable alternative, often turn to bushmeat for food. The gorillas are targeted because of their large size, even though they are protected by law.
Congone of the principal authors of the report, said: “As one of our closest living relatives, we have a duty to protect this Great Ape from extinction. But unless greater investment and effort is made, we face the very real threat that this incredible primate will disappear from many parts of its range in the next five years. It’s vital that we act fast.”
In a first step to help protect the species, the authors of the report recommend raising the status of the gorillas on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species from “endangered” to “critically endangered,” which indicates an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
Mr Nixon added: “Halting and reversing the decline of the Grauer’s gorilla will take considerable effort and will require more funding than is currently available. But by highlighting their plight via this new study, we have taken our first stride. It’s a hugely complicated challenge and, amongst many other things, it’s going to require disarming the militias in the eastern DRC and controlling illegal mining and the poaching that accompanies it. Establishing new protected areas and enhanced support for existing ones, along with community management of reserves and programmes to raise awareness of the crisis are also going to be vitally important if anyone is going to protect these magnificent and defenseless animals from extinction.”